The Potamopyrgus antopodarumon reproduction test is designed to assess potential effects of prolonged exposure to chemicals on reproduction and survival of parthenogenetic lineages of the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Adult female P. antipodarum are exposed to a concentration range of the test chemical. The test chemical is dispersed into the reconstituted dilution water, added to test beakers, and adult snails are subsequently introduced into the test beakers. When testing �difficult chemicals� (i.e. volatile, unstable, readily biodegradable and adsorbing chemicals) the test can be conducted under flow-through conditions as an alternative to the semi-static design with fixed renewal periods of the medium (see paragraph 29). P. antipodarum survival over the 28 days exposure period and reproduction at the end of the test after 28 days are examined. Reproduction is evaluated by counting the number of embryo in the brood pouch (without distinction of developmental stages) at the end of 28 days exposure. The toxic effect of the test chemical on embryo numbers is expressed as ECX by fitting an appropriate regression model in order to estimate the concentration that would cause x % reduction in embryo numbers or alternatively as the No Observed Effect Concentration and Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC/LOEC) value (2).